A very interesting feature of LoRaWAN is localization without the need of GPS. This is especially useful for tracking assets and sensors, since it’s very battery-efficient. LoRaWAN sensors can support tracking applications by using Differential Time of Arrival techniques to determine approximate location to the nearest city block.
This coarse-grained triangulation can be achieved when a device is transmitting to at least three gateways in a similar manner as GPS receivers. With foreknowledge of each gateway’s physical location and by detecting the difference in time between all of them as the signal arrives, an application can compute the approximate position of the signal’s origin. Ref: LinkLabs